I thought I’d take a look at software-defined networking (SDN) this month, since it’s another topic I regularly see across Technically Speaking and a subject that’s been populating most technology news headlines recently. Like my previous article covering network functions virtualization (NFV) which was published last year, I wanted to not only understand the subject matter better myself, but share with you the fundamentals of the concept as well as its supposition ...
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It seems like all we hear about these days is “the cloud”; music in the cloud, photos in the cloud, video in the cloud, backup in the cloud. But what does all of the cloudification mean for traditional service providers and their traditional suppliers? ...

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There’s been a lot of buzz around 4-Level Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM-4) in optical interconnect circles lately, and not without good reason. With the enterprise and metro carriers moving steadily toward 100Gbit/s connectivity, and already setting their sights on 400Gbit/s and beyond, the need to improve the ability of both the transmitter and receiver to handle large amounts of data is growing ...

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After many ambitious starts by operators hoping to build gigabit networks, the reality sets in. Building out fiber to all premises is difficult, slow, complicated and expensive. In order to achieve a reasonable ROI, many operators avoid locations that are difficult to serve, resulting in these high-speed, high-quality networks going to only a chosen few. This not only widens the digital divide but also makes the goal of a “gigabit society” difficult to achieve ...
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